Training

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An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth.

Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge or fitness that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, training may continue beyond initial competence to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within some professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Training also refers to the development of physical fitness related to a specific competence, such as sport, martial arts, military applications and some other occupations.

Types[edit]

Mountaineering training in Estonia. It involves both instruction and physical exercise in the outdoor environment to develop skills that are necessary for survival in rock climbing.

Physical training[edit]

Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training programs in this area develop specific motor skills, agility, strength or physical fitness, often with an intention of peaking at a particular time.

In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learn the many skills needed in a time of war. These include how to use a variety of weapons, outdoor survival skills, and how to survive being captured by the enemy, among many others. See military education and training.

For psychological or physiological reasons, people who believe it may be beneficial to them can choose to practice relaxation training, or autogenic training, in an attempt to increase their ability to relax or deal with stress.[1] While some studies have indicated relaxation training is useful for some medical conditions, autogenic training has limited results or has been the result of few studies.

Occupational skills training[edit]

Some occupations are inherently hazardous, and require a minimum level of competence before the practitioners can perform the work at an acceptable level of safety to themselves or others in the vicinity. Occupational diving, rescue, firefighting and operation of certain types of machinery and vehicles may require assessment and certification of a minimum acceptable competence before the person is allowed to practice as a licensed instructor.

On job training[edit]

Computer skills training

Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: "training and development". There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services.[2] One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job.

The on-the-job training method takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.[3] It involves employees training at the place of work while they are doing the actual job. Usually, a professional trainer (or sometimes an experienced and skilled employee) serves as the instructor using hands-on practical experience which may be supported by formal classroom presentations. Sometimes training can occur by using web-based technology or video conferencing tools.

Simulation based training is another method which uses technology to assist in trainee development. This is particularly common in the training of skills requiring a very high degree of practice, and in those which include a significant responsibility for life and property. An advantage is that simulation training allows the trainer to find, study, and remedy skill deficiencies in their trainees in a controlled, virtual environment. This also allows the trainees an opportunity to experience and study events that would otherwise be rare on the job, e.g., in-flight emergencies, system failure, etc., wherein the trainer can run 'scenarios' and study how the trainee reacts, thus assisting in improving his/her skills if the event was to occur in the real world. Examples of skills that commonly include simulator training during stages of development include piloting aircraft, spacecraft, locomotives, and ships, operating air traffic control airspace/sectors, power plant operations training, advanced military/defense system training, and advanced emergency response training.

Off-the-job training method takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training method also involves employee training at a site away from the actual work environment. It often utilizes lectures, seminars, case studies, role playing, and simulation, having the advantage of allowing people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. Many personnel selection companies offer a service which would help to improve employee competencies and change the attitude towards the job. The internal personnel training topics can vary from effective problem-solving skills to leadership training.

A more recent development in job training is the On the Job Training Plan or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of the Interior, a proper OJT plan should include: An overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated.[4]

Training in business application projects [5])[edit]

The training strategy and plan identifies the objectives, vision, approach, and delivery mechanisms for the training over the course of the project. This is a critical aspect of Organization Change Management (OCM) to align and mobilize the organization’s users. OCM activities include analyzing job impacts, identifying roles and responsibilities, and providing adequate initial and ongoing training to the users.

Knowledge transfer is a critical aspect in the transitioning of ownership of the new implemented solution to the customer. Adequate training of customer resources is crucial not only for the success of the implementation of project, but also to ensure the customer’s overall satisfaction with their new solution. Various options are available for scheduling and delivering training, depending on each customer’s unique needs. It is important to gain customer commitment for allocating appropriate resources to be trained, both at the beginning of the implementation project and at the end, right before the golive cutover to the new solution.

The purpose of the solution overview is to provide the customer resources who will participate in the Business Requirements Workshop a baseline as to the terminology used within the new solution. Core team training in the design phase focuses on educating the customer resources who will actively participate in making decisions about how the software will be implemented. Training in the Deployment phase is focused on preparing customer resources for participation in User acceptance testing (which will also provide for training on using the new solution to complete their daily work, and maintaining the solution in on-going daily operation. A Train-the-Trainer approach is used, whereby a train-the-trainer session is conducted with the customer resources who will conduct the End User training. This session prepares the customer resources, who may not be accustomed to providing such training, with the necessary skills. If there are significant customizations being developed, additional training and/or procedure documentation may need to be created to supplement the documentation that is provided with the software. This additional documentation is typically created in the Development phase.

After the successful Go-Live, final updates may be required to training and daily procedure documentation that will be given to the customer. Additional training may be needed for a variety of reasons. This training might involve formal sessions for customer resources who were not trained prior to golive, or it might involve informal or follow-up refresher sessions to maximize work efficiency on the new solution.

Religion and spirituality[edit]

In religious and spiritual use, the word "training" may refer to the purification of the mind, heart, understanding and actions to obtain a variety of spiritual goals such as (for example) closeness to God or freedom from suffering. Note for example the institutionalised spiritual training of Threefold Training in Buddhism, meditation in Hinduism or discipleship in Christianity. These aspects of training can be short-term or can last a lifetime, depending on the context of the training and which religious group it is a part of.

Instructor's guides and Lesson Plans[edit]

Instructor Guide (IG), is an important document available to an instructor. Specifically, it is used within a Lesson Plan, as the blueprint that ensures instruction is presented in proper sequence and to the depth required by the objectives. Objectives of a lesson plan:

  • To ensure that instructors have considered all factors necessary to conduct a safe and effective lesson.
  • To guide you in conducting lesson activities.
  • To help maintain a constant check on training activities and students’ progress.
  • To Standardize instruction.
  • To inform training managers of what is being taught.[6]

Artificial-intelligence feedback[edit]

Researchers have developed training methods for artificial-intelligence devices as well. Evolutionary algorithms, including genetic programming and other methods of machine learning, use a system of feedback based on "fitness functions" to allow computer programs to determine how well an entity performs a task. The methods construct a series of programs, known as a “population” of programs, and then automatically test them for "fitness", observing how well they perform the intended task. The system automatically generates new programs based on members of the population that perform the best. These new members replace programs that perform the worst. The procedure repeats until the achievement of optimum performance.[7] In robotics, such a system can continue to run in real-time after initial training, allowing robots to adapt to new situations and to changes in themselves, for example, due to wear or damage. Researchers have also developed robots that can appear to mimic simple human behavior as a starting point for training.[8]

References[edit]

  1. » Relaxation training may cut hypertension medication among elderly - Thaindian News
  2. Job Training - Alaska Department of worker and Workforce Development
  3. "UNESCO-UNEVOC". unevoc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  4. "Job Training". Jobs.state.ak.us. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
  5. Microsoft Dynamics SureStep. Microsoft.
  6. US Navy, Center for Personal Professional Development (2010). Navy Instructional Theory NAVEDTRA 14300A, Chapter 9 Course Materials.
  7. Genetic Programming: An Introduction, Wolfgang Banzhaf, Peter Nordin, Robert E. Keller, and Frank D. Francone, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., 1998
  8. "HR-2 Robot can mimic simple human behavior". Archived from the original on 2007-06-07.